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In the last article we discuss and show the practical implementation of RF filter in mobile phone application. It demonstrated how filter technologies emerged from SAW to BAW following the evolution of mobile generation and the ever increasing demand for device miniaturization.

Similar to the network infrastructure which works as the brain of the mobile network, transmitting and receiving signals between deployed base stations as well as terminal devices such as mobile phones, the demand for miniaturization and greater performance is also facing a greater height.

As we move into the 5G era and beyond, it is expected that terminal…


In this article we will discuss and provide further insight about one of the very indispensable devices in all wireless systems and applications — the RF filters. We talk a lot about RF filters in literatures, about their principle, their functions and their importance. However one may find very little information concerning practical implementations of RF filter types, such as their look (implementation technologies) and why and how are they integrated into an application.

In principle, one can easily understand that a filter is a device consisting of multiple LC circuits which resonate at one particular frequency. Well it sounds…


Standard Commands for Programming Instruments, also known as SCPI is a standard for syntax and commands designed specifically for controlling instruments. It consists of generic commands that could be used with any instruments including network analyzer, spectrum analyzer ,digital multimeter and more. SCPI commands are written in ASCII strings, which are sent to instrument over physical communication layer.

Origin of SCPI

In 1975, IEEE introduced Standard Digital Interface for Programmable Instrumentation, IEEE-488. Later, the revised versions are introduced as IEEE-488.1. It specified the physical and electrical bus, and IEEE-488.2 specified protocol and data format. …


Versioning is very important in programming development. So that

  1. Users are always downloading the latest version.
  2. Testers are always downloading the right version from the pipeline after the developer fixes the bug.

Recently, the concept of CI/CD (Continuous Integration/Continuous Development) programming practice means that versioning has become even more important. Therefore, practice of coming out with a unique version numbering in application builds becomes crucial.

The build number is generated from the source code so this becomes extra maintenance work for the developer after pushing the code every time. Luckily, with assistance from IDE such as Visual Studio, build can…


The world is at the advent of the 4th industrial revolution. The technologies are defined, the stage is set and both society and industry alike are rising up to adapt and implement the benefits that comes with this Industry 4.0. As per the previous revolutions, this industry 4.0 is set to shake the world. Most industry players are aware of the need to evolve. Either evolve fast enough, or risk falling behind.

The Rocket Worked Perfectly Except..

However, in our haste to adopt the breakthrough techs introduced in Industry 4.0, sometimes its good to “look behind” and see the impact it has on society in…


The roll out of 5G has been taken place aggressively everywhere in the world especially in the leading countries such as the United States, China and Europe. Based on research projection, the total amount on 5G roll out in global supply chain is expected to hit at least $2.7tn in the next 10 years.

In most articles to date, the focus is emphasizing on the impact to societies that comes with the 5G roll out. However there is little discussion on the impact to the industry and their contribution towards enabling 5G. …


Did you know that almost 75% of the app are not using the english language? According to statistica, three quarter of the users on the internet are non-english speaking users. Languages play an important role for your branding and marketing. If you app is able to display the local languages, you can target a wider audience who are only fluent in their native language. This is why making your application to support multiple languages may increase downloads of your app and promote the brand as well.

Multilingual WPF Applications

For WPF applications, I can think of two ways to do it. First is…


A resonant circuit is a circuit containing both an inductor and a capacitor — and therefore, both inductive and capacitive reactances. Its purpose is to produce a reflection zero that will ensure maximum transmission of the signal at a particular frequency. At this frequency, the impedance of the resonant circuit is at its lowest, allowing better signal throughput. A resonant circuit generally looks like below:

For any such circuit, there is a specific frequency at which the inductive and capacitive reactances are the same, that is


humans are a species that needs to socialize. Communication has always been crucial to human since the prehistoric era to enhance human interactions.

The History of Communication

Petroglyphs

The first development of communication system can be traced back since the birth of speech (approximately 500, 000 BCE) and with the wide range of vocal abilities, humans have been able to express their feelings clearly.

As there are imperfections in human speech, graphic symbols such as cave paintings, pictograms, petroglyphs and ideograms are created to facilitate communication and longevity of information.

With the discovery of fire usage, prehistoric humans have been able to develop long distance…


The advent of the electronics industry has left a tremendous impact on the human history. Nowadays, we can see that electronic circuits and devices are found in various applications such as home appliances, healthcare, automotive, communication, industries, transportation, etc., in which these applications are impossible to function without electronics.

Beginning of 19th century marked the important era of the revolution in electronics starting with the invention of the vacuum diode by J.A. Fleming which later led to the invention of the junction transistor. …

FILPAL

FILPAL designs, and builds RF and Microwave software and hardware for Cellular, Military, Academia and Test & Measurement applications. http://www.filpal.com

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